Copyright: A New Method to Artist Financing within the African Music…

Copyright: A New Method to Artist Financing within the African Music…

By: Ubani Obinna


In 2019, former Common Music executives Mattias
Tengblad and Emil Angervall co-founded a model referred to as ‘Corite’ which offered a
platform for music followers to straight spend money on their favourite artist model and
obtain financial returns on investments[i]. This concept conforms
with that of ‘World Rockstar,’ one other platform created earlier (2014) for
followers and different traders to finance an artist’s model and music. These manufacturers
try to put the foundations for different funding sources for an artist
model (utilizing the fans-to-artist direct mannequin) that’s totally different and away from
the normal mannequin.

over the world, music enterprise execs are creating fashions to make sure that their
creatives have a greater platform to discover financially with out dropping all they
have constructed. The aim of this paper is to suggest a brand new mannequin out there to
artists to generate funds via the industrial exploitation of their


conventional mannequin of financing an artist in Africa typically is that of the
document label. Below this mannequin, a document label supplies the funds, construction,
and personnel that renders sure companies to spice up the artist model, and so they
embody (a) Manufacturing of information, (b) Manufacturing of such information, (c)
Distribution of information (d) Advertising (e) Promotion and (f) Income Era.
These companies are executed or carried out by the label via a partnership
with different manufacturers, and in change for such companies, the artist provides the
document label: (a) Exclusivity of service and (b) Masters information. As well as
to this, each events agree on the sharing system for income derived each
from direct industrial exploitation of such information and the third celebration
licensing the period of the contract/industrial exploitation of the grasp
information by the document label, and different very important parts like renegotiation
procedures and circumstances, and circumstances for termination of the contract.

mannequin has been extensively used within the continent and has led to superb artists
with formidable manufacturers. It has additionally introduced some document labels with
alternatives to draw extra funding. Nonetheless, most trade stakeholders
imagine that it’s lengthy overdue for a change, contemplating the adverse tales
from most artists which have handed via such a mannequin. Though there have
been criticisms, controversies, and arguments concerning the construction of the mannequin
vis-a-viz possession of the Masters, sharing formulae for revenues, and prolonged
period of some document labels contracts, the query has at all times been: Is there
any different to the mannequin?


music enterprise students proposed Do-It-Your self (DIY) and for the artist to
work in the direction of constructing an impartial model. A few of these proposed preparations
embody one hundred pc possession of copyright and the flexibility to make an
impartial determination in your model. It has been proposed that manufacturers may
render label companies with out having an analogous construction as historically
acknowledged document labels. Thus below this association, the artist builds a
private group that works with him, and for industrial exploitation of an album,
he pays such model to render the above-stated label companies to them. In different
phrases, the label companies model doesn’t personal any proportion of the Masters nor
the copyright of the artist however renders administration service via the use
of their established construction and partnership, and the artist pays
administration charges too.

mannequin has been applauded, with most indigenous manufacturers already constructing content material
to implement its ideas, however financing has not nonetheless been settled. That is
as a result of even below this mannequin, artists nonetheless want artists to pay for companies,
and there’s at all times the difficulty of financing for many artists in Africa.

 THE NEW MODEL (C-Mannequin)

C-model entails that an artist can make the most of his mental property
(copyright) in a document as collateral to request or apply for a mortgage from a
monetary establishment (specifically structured for such goal) to make the most of such
mortgage to spice up the worth of his model. The C-model is constructed on three fundamental
ideas and embody Copyright, IP Valuation, Finance, and Construction.


Copyright Act clearly outlined works that may be protected below such umbrellas.
They embody literary works, inventive works, musical works, sound recordings,
and broadcasts.[ii]
For this paper’s goal, the main focus could be on the musical works as topic to
copyright safety. Musical works are outlined as ” any musical work,
regardless of musical high quality and embody works composed for musical accompaniment.”[iii]
Therefore, musical works are protected by copyright, and solely the holder of such a
proper can authorize, license, or give consent for using such work.[iv]

addition, this laws offered that the copyright will be transferred to
one other particular person or entity by the holder of such proper as movable property.[v]
Thus, a holder of copyright could make testamentary inclinations, project, or
perform some other transaction that requires the switch of his curiosity with
such copyright via a written settlement (primarily within the case of unique
switch) or orally (relevant just for non-exclusive switch of rights).[vi]  Nonetheless, a copyright holder can solely switch
or assign copyright to the extent of his proper in such musical work.[vii].
As an illustration, if Mr. A and Mr. B co-wrote a track (musical work), they’re
known as co-holders of the copyright to such track, and Mr. A can solely
switch his a part of the precise in such work solely to a different entity.

mild of the C- mannequin, copyright to a musical work would function collateral or
the artist’s consideration to an entity to acquire funds to construct his model.
Particular clauses are required to be clear as to the issuance of such copyright,
and so they embody: (a) The period of such project, switch, or license (b)
The territory to which such license will be commercially exploited (c) The
extent of proper being given to the entity.

IP (Mental
Property) Valuation

IP Valuation refers back to the strategy of figuring out
the longer term worth of IP property.[viii]. It may also be outlined ‘as a course of to
decide the topic IP’s financial worth.[ix]. The first goal of an IP Valuation from a
enterprise perspective is to make sure that the IP asset would yield extra earnings in
the longer term to supersede the quantity utilized to buy it. There exist varied
transactions that require IP valuation of IP property, and so they embody:
(a)Mergers & Acquisitions (b) Litigation & Dispute Decision in IP
infringement instances (c) Account Reporting (d) Financing.

for an IP asset to be match to bear this course of, particular necessities want
to be happy, resembling: (i) Legally acknowledged as being transferrable: Right here,
the IP property (on this case copyright to a musical work) will need to have been cleared
of all third-party infringements and authorized obligations (ii) It should be in a
tangible type of identification, and many others.

exist varied strategies of finishing up an IP valuation, (i) The price technique
focuses on the price of buying such IP property and attempt to take into account the
varied bills which have been accrued in the course of the strategy of constructing such
property to the present worth and attempt to steadiness it with the price of growing
related IP property internally. In such a scenario, the IP worth could be primarily based
on the entire prices computed regarding such asset. (ii) The market-based
technique reduces an IP asset’s worth by evaluating it with related transactions for related or equivalent IP rights.
For instance, the worth paid within the buy of an equivalent or related IP proper[x].
(iii) The income-based method, which is the preferred ‘measures the
potential future advantages of the topic IP to find out its value.[xi]

the C- mannequin, IP valuation is important to find out the extent of funds given to holders of such copyright. Thus, the musical work’s future
potentials are assessed and validated earlier than such fund is launched to the
artist. Therefore, there’s a want for funding in an institution that might
focus on IP valuation of property for traders within the music trade.

Streaming Energy-Viewers Base Technique

addition to the above IP valuation strategies, this proposed new technique would
give attention to the streaming energy and viewers base to find out the worth of such
musical work. This technique will be utilized the place there exists a scarcity of information,
construction, and platform to make sure the efficient utilization of the above-stated
or the place the traders favor to make use of them.

this technique, there could be consideration of the entire streams related to
the artist and his musical work, the fan base of the artist, how doable it
could be sooner or later to extend such streams, fan base, and earnings if
further funding is injected.

Nonetheless, the demerit of using
this technique could be the difficulty of ‘judging a e-book by its cowl.’ This
assertion’s rationale lies in the truth that an upcoming artist could be nicely
proficient and have glorious musical work however no substantial numbers because of low
advertising and marketing budgets.


This can be a elementary a part of the C-Mannequin and
entails both pure authorities intervention, Personal Public Partnership (PPP),
or an fairness dialogue. Regardless of the initiative accepted and carried out, the
major goal needs to be to make funds out there to be launched to such
artists that meet the C-model’s commonplace requirement. In different phrases, there’s clear
possession of copyright to such musical work, profitable IP valuation, and honest
phrases of the settlement.[xiii].


(a)A Regulatory physique: There needs to be the
existence of an establishment that’s saddled with the accountability of
monitoring and supervising the administration of such funds given to the
artist. To make sure that that is environment friendly, each artist making use of the C-model
should be mandated to organize an in depth profession plan displaying the stage-to-stage
use of such funds. Quarterly Efficiency and Monetary Report should be issued to
the artist group’s physique and make its account books out there for audit by an
impartial auditor contracted by the physique.

Authorized Framework: Legal guidelines and insurance policies are required
to be enacted and initiated to information or regulate the mannequin’s use. This authorized
framework ought to postulate the next:

  • The process
    for investments into this mannequin by non-public traders (enterprise capitals) or
    public enterprise
  • Create the regulatory our bodies and spell out their
    powers, duties, and features.
  • Present
    strict penal measures within the case of breach of its provisions.
  • Conducive
    Surroundings: Authorities performs a pivotal function on this mannequin by creating an
    enabling environment that might persuade traders to implement this mannequin.
    Formulation of efficient insurance policies to find out income calculation in digital
    platforms and an replace of the copyright laws to make sure it encompasses
    the brand new music enterprise traits is important. The rationale behind that is to
    be certain that the traders can generate the utmost income from the industrial
    exploitation of such copyright acquired in the course of the settlement’s period. Additionally,
    there needs to be an introduction of a tax incentive to traders on this mannequin
    to alleviate the burden and encourage participation.


This mannequin could be very important in creating an
different for artist financing if supported and effectively carried out. To
actualize this, [xiv], and the necessity to collaborate and accomplice in
creating the precise constructions, laws, and conducive atmosphere.


[ii] See Part 1(1) Copyright Act of Nigeria LFN 2004.

[iii] See Part 39 of the Copyright Act of Nigeria.

[iv] See part 5(1)(a) Copyright Act of Nigeria, the place the assorted
rights had been outlined and the exemptions spelled out within the Second Schedule to
the Act.

[v] Part 10(1) of the Copyright Act.

[vi] Nonetheless, below different laws, there are express provisions
that ‘all switch of rights should be by writing.’ See Part 9(4) of the
Copyright Act of Ghana,2004.

[vii] Part 10(2) Copyright Act of Nigeria, LFN 2004.

[viii] Notice: IP property described right here refers to emblems, service marks,
patent, and likewise copyrights




[xii] There exist different IP Valuation strategies, however the above are probably the most

[xiii] The phrases of an settlement are subjective to particular person
transactions, however the frequent notion of the c-model should be current, as
talked about within the paper.

[xiv]stakeholders embody the federal government and its related companies, music
enterprise consultants, non-public traders, and the creatives

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